Course syllabus

 

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CRIM 201: Debates in Criminology

Semester 1 2019

PART I: COURSE OUTLINE AND SCHEDULE

 

Crim 201 Semester 1 2019 15 points

Course delivery format: 2 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial

Lecturer: Dr. Salman

Office Hour: Tuesday 2:00-4:00, HSB Department of Sociology (9th Fl) RM 908

Email: s.salman@auckland.ac.nz

Lectures: Monday 2:00-4:00 Room: 260-092 (Owen G Glenn, Room 092)

Tutors (contacts; office hours; and tutorial times)

  • Frea Anderson (fand327@aucklanduni.ac.nz) Office Hour: Tuesday 09:00-11:00 (HSB 941) Tutorials Tuesday 11:00-12:00 (HSB 704) and 12:00-1:00 (HSB 704).
  • Kahn Tasker (ktas226@aucklanduni.ac.nz) Office Hour: Wednesday 10am-12pm (HSB 943) Tutorials: Monday 4:00-5:00 (HSB 704); Wednesday 12:00-1:00 (HSB NORTH 429).
  • Kate Thompson(ktho970@aucklanduni.ac.nz) Office Hour: Monday 4:00-5:00 (HSB 941). Monday 5:00-6:00 (HSB 704).
  • Dr. Salman: Tuesday 4:00-5:00pm (HSB 704).

Tuākana Tutor  Arapera Blank-Penetito (abla174@aucklanduni.ac.nz

Introduction and Course description

This course will look at a number of fundamental and influential debates in criminology that inform contemporary research and justice policies in New Zealand, Australia, Europe, Britain, the United States and other countries. After an introduction to debates over the main theoretical foundations and currents in the field, topical debates to be discussed and analysed include inequality and crime, state crime, class and crime, gender and crime, deviance and antisocial behaviour.  

CANVAS

 This course uses Canvas e-learning for many announcements. The course outline and lectures will also be placed on it as well as additional links and occasional articles. Note that this is not to be taken as a substitute for lecture attendance. While Canvas will be useful as a teaching and learning aid it will not alone be sufficient in assisting you to pass this course. To accomplish this, you need to regularly attend lectures, participate in tutorials, do extensive readings, complete the coursework and sit the examination.

Course Objectives and outcomes

 At the end of this course you should:

  • Have an understanding of the primary arguments, histories and theoretical assumptions of the debates covered in this course
  • Be familiar with basic criminological theories as they inform these debates
  • Understand the diverse nature of opinions, policies and sociological theories that inform these debates
  • Be able to critically analyse different responses and positions in these debates
  • Understand the consequences of responses and positions as they have historically informed policies

To achieve the course objectives listed above you will need to:

  • Attend, concentrate and take notes in the weekly lecture
  • Do not use cell phones or laptops in the class –Except during Peerwise Polling
  • Attend and actively participate in tutorials
  • Read, take notes, and reflect on each required reading and a reasonable proportion of the recommended reading
  • Monitor the media for current issues relevant to debates discussed in the course
  • Complete and submit assignments and final exam on time
  • Note that access to recorded lectures is only upon request. See the Request Form in Canvas under Modules.

Class Conduct and Communication Policy

  • Use of cellphones, laptops and other electronics is not permitted in the class --except with use of PeerWise polling.
  • You may not take photos of the PowerPoint slides, your peers or professor and tutors.
  • Remember crime and criminology are sensitive topics – discussions will be conducted in a mutually supportive environment in which we are respectful of each other’s views, and experiences.
  • Please note that as per the University of Auckland policy on email communication, you must use your university email address.
  • Your email communication must contain appropriate and clear subject line, greeting to your instructor (professor or tutor), and it must be signed off. Use professional language in communication. Failure to comply may result in a non-response. Please expect 2-3 working days to respond to emails.  

 Workload and Deadlines for Coursework Submission

The University of Auckland’s expectation is that students spend 10 hours per week on a 15-point course, including time in class and personal study. Students should manage their academic workload and other commitments accordingly. Deadlines for coursework are set by course convenors and will be advertised in course material. You should submit your work on time. In extreme circumstances, such as illness, you may seek an extension but you may be required to provide supporting information before the assignment is due. Late assignments without a pre-approved extension will be penalised by loss of marks – check course information for details.

Course Readings

The readings for this course are accessible through the reading list on Canvas as well as the library.  You will be expected to do all assigned reading as well as independent readings related to your research assignment.

Course Topics and Schedule

 Section I Introducing Criminology: Theoretical and Methodological Foundations

  • Week One:  Introducing Criminology and the Study of Crime        

Monday 4th March:  Introducing the Course, Introducing Criminology

Essential Reading: 1. Leonard Glick & J. Mitchell Miller. Introduction. Criminology. 2nd Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 2008. (pp. 3-20).

  1. Coleman, C. and Moynihan, J. (2002) ‘The Social Construction of Official Statistics’ (pp 97-104) in Criminology: A Reader. Yvonne Jewkes & Gayle Letherby. London: Sage Publications. 2002.

 

  • Week Two: The History and Science of Criminology

Monday 11th March: Evolution of Criminology: Modern Classical and Biological Theories

Essential Reading: Charles F. Wellford. History and Evolution of Criminology (Chapter 2 pp.10-17). In: 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook. Edited by: J. Mitchell Miller. Sage Publications: London. 2009.

 Suggested Reading: Wensley, D., & King, M. (2008). Scientific responsibility for the dissemination and interpretation of genetic research: lessons from the “warrior gene” controversy. Journal of medical ethics34(6), 507-509.

  • Week Three: Structural Functionalism and Positivism, Social Structure and Crime

Monday 18th March: Crime as a Normal Social Phenomenon, Crime as a Symptom of Strain

Essential Reading: Emile Durkheim. 1. “Rules for the Distinction of the Normal from the Pathological”. In The Rules of Sociological Method. W. H. Halls, Trans. London: The Free Press. 1982 (pp.85-107).

  1. Emile Durkheim “The Normal and the Pathological” (Chapter 9 pp 69-73) in Criminological Perspectives: Essential Readings. Edited by E McLaughlin, J Muncie. (2003). London: Sage Publications (2013)
  2. Robert K. Merton. Social Structure and Anomie. American Sociological Review. 3:5. 1938. 672-682.

 

  • Week Four: Emotions and the Seduction of Crime                                               

Monday 25th March Toward a Phenomenology of Violence: Righteous Slaughter; Seduction of Crime: Structure or Subjectivity?

  Essential Reading: 1. Jack Katz. “Righteous Slaughter”, and “Seductions and Repulsions of Crime” (Chapters 1 and 9). Seductions of Crime. (New York: Basic Books, 1988).

Suggested Reading Jack Katz. Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil (Chapter 14 pp 123-129). In The Classics of Criminology. Edited by Joseph E. Jacoby. (Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland Press. 2004).

  • Week Five: Critical Criminological Studies of Crime

Monday 1st April Labelling Theory and Racialization of Crime

 Essential Reading: 1. Howard Becker. Introduction. Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press. 1963. (pp. 1-18). Becker, Howard Saul, 1928-, 2: Kinds of Deviance: A Sequential Model in Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press. 1963. ( 20-39).

Suggested Reading: Jane Gross. A New, Purified Form Of Cocaine Causes Alarm As Abuse Increases. The New York Times. 29th November, 1985

 

  • Week Six: Critical Criminological Studies of Crime, Test Revision Session

Monday 8th April Youth Delinquency as Drifting, and Neutralization of Delinquency

Essential Readings: 1. Gresham M. Sykes, and David Matza. “Techniques of Naturalization: A Theory of Delinquency.” American Sociological Review, 22:6, 1957, 664-670.

  1. David Matza and Gresham M. Sykes. “Juvenile Delinquency and Subterranean Values.” American Sociological Review. 26(5), 1961. (712-719).

Mid-Term Take Home Assignment Revision (Assignment is due by Friday 12th April 5PM. Late test submission penalized by 30%).

  • MID-SEMESTER BREAK Monday 15th and 20th April MID-SEMESTER BREAK
  • Week Seven Cultural Criminology

 Monday 29th April  Cultural Criminology: A Critique of Criminology

Essential Reading: Jock Young. “Voodoo Criminology and the Numbers Game”. Cultural Criminology Unleashed. Edited by Ferrell, Jeff Ferrell, Keith Hayward, Wayne Morrison, and Mike Presdee. London: Glass House Press, 2004.

Suggested Reading: What’s Causing Chicago’s Homicide Spike? The Atlantic. 24 January, 2017.

Section II  Special Topics in the Study of Crime and Deviancy

  • Week Eight: Violence against Women

Monday 6th May Sanctions and Prohibitions of Violence against Women and Intimate Partner Violence

 Essential Readings: 1. Jayne Mooney. “Shadow Values, Shadow Figures: Real Violence”. Critical Criminology. 15, 159-170. 2007.

  1. Rebecca E Dobash, and Russell P Dobash. Domestic Violence: Sociological Perspectives. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Edited by James D. Wright, Elsevier Ltd. 632-635. 2015.
  • Week Nine: State Crimes: Modern War  ESSAY DUE FRIDAY 17th MAY 5PM

 Monday 13th May Degeneration of Modern Warfare; Civilian bombing, Ethnic Cleansing

Essential Readings: 1. Martin Shaw. Introduction and Chapter 1: War and Slaughter (Pages 1-31). War & Genocide: Organized Killing in Modern History. (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003).

  1. Ronald Kramer. From Guernica to Hiroshima Baghdad: The Normalization Of The Terror Bombing Of Civilians. State Crime in the Global Age. Edited by William J. Chambliss, et al., Willan Publishing, 2011.
  • Week Ten: Terrorism and Racialization of Political Violence

 Monday 20th May Modern Terrorism: The Problem of Definition; Othering and Legitimation of Violence

 Essential Readings: 1. Jock Young. Terrorism and Anti-Terrorism Terrorism (Chapter 8). Vertigo of Late Modernity. London Sage Publication. 2007. (149-174).

  1. Anthea Butler. “Shooters Of Color Are Called ‘Terrorists’ And ‘Thugs.’ Why Are White Shooters Called ‘Mentally Ill’?” The Washington Post (18 June, 2015).
  • Week  Eleven Exam Revision

Monday 27th May Reviewing the Course and the Exam

 

Course Assessment

This course is assessed through a take-home assignment (to be submitted via CANVAS and Hard Copy) (25%), a 1,500~1,700 word essay (To be submitted via CANVAS and Hard Copy) (30%) and a two hour final examination (computer-based digi-exam) worth 45% of your overall mark.

Mid-Term Take-Home Assignment

Due on the 6th week of the course that will be worth 25% of your grade. The assignment is due online via Canvas and a Hard Copy via Arts Student Centre, Friday 12th April 2019 by 5PM. Late test submission penalized by 30%.

 Submitting Your Mid-Term Take Home Test Assignment

  • All assignments must be submitted to Arts Student Centre level 4 Social Sciences Building (201e HSB) 10 Symonds St, Assignment Centre with a cover sheet produced from Canvas AND submitted to Turnitin.
  • Assignments not submitted to Turnitin by the due date will not be marked.
  • Please double-space.
  • Please ensure that your assignment has your name and page number at the top of each page.
  • Take-Home Test Assignment must be submitted as a Word Microsoft document to be read by Turnitin.
  • Extensions are only given for medical or compassionate reasons and will require documentation. Submit extension requests to the Dr. Salman prior to the due date. Extensions are not granted for other work commitments. Please refer to the course's Extension Policy, under Modules.

Essay:

  • Due Week 9, Friday 17th May 2019, 5pm via CANVAS and HARD COPY.
  • 1,500-1,700 words (maximum word count excluding references)
  • Essay must be submitted as a Word Microsoft document to be read by Turnitin.

Answer ONE of the following questions for the essay:

  1. Critically discuss Durkheim’s assertion that “Crime is normal.” You must refer to Durkheim and structural functionalism, and social consensus theory. You must refer to at least two other theorists/criminologists.
  2. In his phenomenological study of crime, Jack Katz refutes structural explanations of crime in favour of experiential explanations. As a sociologist, explore Katz’ argument. In doing so, you must use at least one example of crime to illustrate your argument. You must discuss both structural and phenomenological theories.
  3. Discuss Sykes and Matza’s assertion that juvenile delinquency is a symptom of drifting rather than ‘career criminality.’ In doing so, discuss policy implications of handling juvenile offending. Use at least one other theory of juvenile offending.
  4. In Jock Young’s critique of conventional studies on terrorism, he notes “there is little to distinguish objectively between normal warfare and terrorism except for the power and legitimacy which state agents have over their less powerful opponents”. Critically discuss Young’s position, using the work of at least two other theorists/criminologists. 
  5. Martin Shaw argues that advancement in warfare technology has rendered modern warfare degenerate. Critically discus Shaw’s position, using the work of at least two other theorists/criminologists.
  6. Discuss the cultural criminological critique of criminological studies of crime and victimization. Note the challenges that face criminologists when documenting, researching, and studying crime and violence, and offer research solutions in your essay.
  7. In her study of domestic violence, Jayne Mooney argues that violence against women is a social phenomenon that is both socially abhorrent and accepted. Discuss Mooney’s argument using the work of at least two other theorists/criminologists to support your argument.

Submitting your Essay:

  • All assignments must be submitted to Arts Student Centre level 4 Social Sciences Building (201e HSB) 10 Symonds St, Assignment Centre with a cover sheet produced from Canvas AND submitted to Turnitin.
  • Assignments not submitted to Turnitin by the due date will not be marked.
  • Please double-space.
  • Please ensure that your assignment has your name and page number at the top of each page.
  • Please include a word count at the end of your essay.

 

Late essays Deadlines count! Late essays will lose a grade per day (i.e., an A essay will drop to an A- if it is one day late). Any essay submitted more than one week late will not be accepted unless an extension has been approved previously with your lecturer. Any essay that is over one week late will not be graded unless an extension has been approved.

Extensions are only given for medical or compassionate reasons and will require documentation. Submit extension requests to the Dr. Salman prior to the due date. Extensions are not granted for other work commitments. Please refer to the course's Extension Policy, under Modules. Start the essay early.

The Final Exam

  • Final Examination: The final exam is an open-book two-hour DigiExam. It will consist of long answers and an essay question on topics drawn from course readings. 
  • The Final Exam is going to be a computer-based exam. Information will be provided during the course on the computer-based exam, including a demo-exam. Each student is responsible for accessing the information and ensuring that they are fully prepared for the computer based exam. 
  • The Computer Based Exam will be open-book: Students will be allowed to bring in 10 sheets of A4 sized paper, single-sided or double-sided, worth of notes. You will not be allowed to bring more than 10 Sheets of A4 sized notes, or any other size paper.

    Please note: The University of Auckland is gradually extending Computer Based Exams for Semester One 2019, which improves the overall exam process.

    This means for Criminology 201  that your Semester One exam will be completed on a computer and not on paper. We appreciate that this might be a change for you so we will be publishing a guide as well as a Demo Computer Based Exam later in the semester for you to familiarise yourself with. If you have any questions or concerns you can talk to your lecturer.

 

  • Grades/Marks Schedule:

A: Excellent.

Essays based on wide reading (properly acknowledged through referencing and bibliography) that shows excellent knowledge and understanding of the subject matter. These essays offer well-constructed arguments and show a clear grasp of the major issues. Outstanding essays also exhibit independent and creative thinking and individual flair in expressing complex ideas. They observe the conventions of prose style appropriate to academic work.

B: Good/competent.

Essays which are clearly structured and where the well-supported argument leads to a logical conclusion. They are based on adequate reading (properly acknowledged through references and bibliography) and a good to strong grasp of the major issues raised in the readings. Their meaning is clearly expressed in clear prose.

C: Satisfactory.

Essays which show a reasonable knowledge of the subject matter and attempt to answer the question but display one or more of the following faults:  inadequate reading, misunderstanding of the sources, confused argument and/or structure, weakness of expression, or inadequate attention to referencing and bibliography.

D: Fail.

Essays that display serious failings in one or more of these of the following faults:  inadequate reading, misunderstanding of the sources, confused argument and/or structure, weakness of expression, or inadequate attention to referencing and bibliography.

Marks Schedule

A+       high first          90-100

A         clear first         85-89

A-        bare first          80-84

B+       high second     75-79

B         clear second    70-74

B-        bare second     65-69

C+       sound pass       60-64

C         pass                 55-59

C-        marginal pass 50-54

D+       marginal fail    45-49

D         clear fail          40-44

D-        poor fail          0-39

 

Aegrotat, Compassionate and Special Passes for Examination

Situations exist where special consideration may be given during the examination period.

Note: Application for Aegrotat/Compassionate consideration is also applicable for tests but not assignments. Forms can be collected from the relevant Student Health or Exam Campus Office.

In general, the following are areas where consideration may be given. For more detailed information, refer to the University of Auckland Calendar and the Examination Instructions mailed to students with their personal timetables.

Aegrotat Consideration for temporary illness or injury

Temporary illness or injury which prevents a person from sitting an examination, or which seriously impairs either examination preparation or examination performance, can be taken into account if suitable evidence is provided. Application forms are available from the Student Health Service at the relevant Campus. Note: Applicants should be seen by a registered medical practitioner on the actual day of the examination(s) for which consideration is to be given. See eligibility below. The completed form with medical evidence should be returned to the Student Health Service at the relevant Campus no later than 7 days after the affected examination or 7 days after the last examination to be considered.

Compassionate Consideration for events other than illness

Exceptional circumstances beyond a student’s control which prevent the sitting of an examination, or which seriously impair either examination preparation or performance, can be taken into account if suitable evidence is provided. The completed form with the appropriate evidence should be returned to the Student Health Service at the relevant Campus no later than 7 days after the affected examination or 7 days after the last examination to be considered.

Note: The examination should be attempted if at all possible. Special conditions may be arranged if necessary.

Eligibility for an Aegrotat or Compassionate Pass depends on both:

  • Medical or Other Evidence: The medical or other evidence submitted must be sufficient to make it clear that the applicant is either:
    • Unable to attend the examination;
    • Or his/her performance was seriously impaired at the time of the examination.
    • If examination preparation is seriously impaired, a registered medical practitioner or counsellor should be seen within a fortnight before the examination.
  • Academic Performance:
    • The department must certify that the applicant’s work during the course of instruction is well above minimum pass standard; and
    • The Head of Department must be able to certify that the mark in the examination is lower than expected, taking coursework into account.

Academic Integrity

 Using the work of other writers when preparing an assignment and pretending it is your own by not acknowledging where it came from is called ‘plagiarism’.  Even when you are not intending to cheat, it is clear that submitting someone else’s work or ideas is not evidence of your own grasp of the material and cannot earn you marks.

Cheating will not be tolerated in any form in this course. If you are caught cheating, you will fail the course and be referred to the University and/or department for possible disciplinary action. Plagiarism is cheating. If you are unclear about how or where to cite other people’s works or ideas, pay close attention to the referencing guide attached to this course outline. Remember, when citing or giving credit for other people’s works or ideas, it is always better to fall on the side of caution.

The University Education Committee requires the following statement to be brought to student’s attention:

The University of Auckland will not tolerate cheating, or assisting others to cheat, and views cheating in coursework as a serious academic offence.  The work that a student submits for grading must be the student’s own work, reflecting his or her learning.  Where work from other sources is used, it must be properly acknowledged and referenced. This requirement also applies to sources on the world-wide web. A student’s assessed work may be reviewed against electronic source material using computerised detection mechanisms.  Upon reasonable request, students may be required to provide an electronic version of their work for computerised review.

The online academic integrity course can be found at:

https://www.academicintegrity.auckland.ac.nz/

Where can I Seek Support?

If you have any questions or concerns please discuss with your tutor or lecturer in the first instance. We also have class representatives, and more information about the University’s policy and procedure for raising academic complaints can be found at:

http://www.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/academic-disputes-and-complaints

 

PART II:  STUDENT SUPPORT, HELP AND ADVICE

Equity at the University of Auckland

Health and Wellness at the University of Auckland

The university has a health and wellness centre providing a range of services for students. Please see:

Inclusive Learning

The University of Auckland is committed to being a safe, inclusive and equitable
place to study and work. It is important for students to speak with the lecturer or the tutors if you have any specific learning needs. If you have received a Memo from Inclusive Learning, please let the lecturer or your tutor know.   

Student Learning Services offer the following:

 

Support for undergraduates
Helping students achieve success in their early academic career.

Support for postgraduates
Support for all coursework and thesis-writing postgraduates and research development skills for doctoral students.

Student Learning workshops
A variety of workshops for all students at The University of Auckland.

One-to-one tutorials
Individual appointments with expert Student Learning staff.

Māori and Pasifika students
Te Fale Pouawhina - a programme based kaupapa Māori and Pasifika principles.

Learning disabilities students
Helping students with learning disabilities succeed within the academic setting.

English language students
Workshops and support groups for students with English as an additional language.

Please see their web page for details and contacts:

http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/student-learning/index.php?p=slc

The Department of Applied Language Studies and Linguistics (www.arts.auckland.ac.nz/dalsl) offers credit courses for students for whom English is an additional language that can help with Academic English Writing, Listening and Speaking.

The Tuakana Arts Programme provides support for Māori, Pasifika and other students who would like assistance with study habits, essays writing and exam preparation through a peer mentoring arrangement.  The Tuakana mentors for Sociology have offices in the Sociology Department, 9th Floor HSB.  Drop by or listen out in lectures for information about how to join the Tuakana programme.

 

Help with writing essays and referencing your work

 

Useful Tips for Essay Writing

General tips

  • Keep to the topic and answer the essay question directly.
  • Avoid just listing key facts or excerpts from a document – provide YOUR analysis to show how they exemplify your argument.
  • Do not rely solely on lecture notes – you are supposed to show your capacity to conduct independent research, so instead of referencing lecture notes try to find the original source used by the lecturer.
  • Always include an introduction that tells where the essay is going and summarises your key argument and a conclusion that summarises your key arguments.
  • Provide definitions of key terms or concepts if they are central to your argument.

Taking notes

  • When you start each book or article, note the title, author, place and date of publication. You will need these details later.  Also write the relevant page number in the margin as you take notes in case you wish to refer back to it later, or cite it in a footnote.  It can save a lot of time.
  • Do not copy books slavishly. Paraphrase, condense, and write as much as possible in your own words.  This forces you to think more carefully about what the author is saying.
  • If you do decide you need to copy directly from a book, be especially careful to note all bibliographic details, and to use some system (e.g. large quotation marks) to remind yourself when you return to your notes that the words are not your own. Careless note taking can result in incorrect quotations, inaccurate footnotes, or plagiarism. 
  • What should you take notes about? Begin by considering your question.  Lectures and tutorials may already have given you a rough idea of what information you are looking for.  If not, you may save time by looking at a general text before you start note taking.  Most students take too many notes.  Try to select what is relevant to the question you have been asked.  If an important book was among the first you read, you may find it useful to return to it later when your understanding of the topic is clearer.
  • How should you organise your notes? Once you have a tentative idea of what the main points of your answer will be you should reorganise your notes under separate headings (e.g. ‘military factors’, ‘international pressures’ etc.)  Cross-referencing can help remind you of differing opinion.  The earlier you can begin organising your notes to fit the argument of your essay, the more work you will save yourself later. 

Referencing

  • Reference every main point – this means usually at least one reference per paragraph.
  • Include only sources cited in your reference list at the end of your essay – this means if you read a book but do not have an in-text reference in the main text of your essay, do not include it in your reference list.
  • Include only author SURNAME, publication date and page number in in-text reference – all other details must be included in the reference list.
  • References are better kept together not split.
    • NOT Manning indicates that the debate about indigeneity is “contestable, constrained and contradictory” (Manning 1987, 12).
    • NOR Manning indicates that the debate about indigeneity is “contestable, constrained and contradictory” (1987, 12).
    • BUT Manning (1987, 12) indicates that the debate about indigeneity is “contestable, constrained and contradictory”.

 

Quoting

  • Avoid excessive direct quotation. Paraphrasing (i.e. writing the same idea in your own words) is better, but do not forget to reference the source of the idea or point.
  • Avoid long quotes; choose only the most important piece of the quote.
  • Do not include quotes in your conclusion.
  • If you need to quote, introduce and explain quotes, indicating how they further your argument.

 

Academic style

Essays must be written in a formal, academic style.  This requires that you:

  • Organise key points into paragraphs, usually one point per paragraph. Begin each paragraph with an introductory or linking sentence. Avoid single-sentence paragraphs.
  • Avoid abbreviations (e.g. NZ) or colloquial/slang language and especially txt-speak!
  • Avoid incomplete, fragmented sentences (e.g. ones that do not have a finite verb).
  • Take care with spelling and punctuation. This includes apostrophes: put them in when they belong (and only when they belong), put them in the right place, and
    • Do not use them in dates (e.g. 1950s, not 1950’s).
    • Also, avoid contractions (e.g. don’t).

University of Auckland Student LearningServices:

http://www.library.auckland.ac.nz/student-learning/index.php?p=slc

 

 

Course summary:

Date Details